Volume 24, Issue 2 (June & July 2021)                   J Arak Uni Med Sci 2021, 24(2): 278-291 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

1- Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. , drghandi1351@gmail.com
2- Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.
Abstract:   (1974 Views)
Background and Aim: Considering the importance of childhood obesity and easier correction of related factors in this age group, the present study aimed to investigate the role of some factors related to family, nutrition, and lifestyle on childhood obesity.
Methods & Materials: This age-matched case-control study was performed on 150 obese and 150 healthy children, aged 2-15 years referring to Amir-Kabir Hospital in Arak City, Iran. Obesity was calculated based on Body Mass Index (BMI). Required information, including family factors, nutritional factors, and lifestyle characteristics were collected by a checklist.
Ethical Considerations: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Arak University of Medical Sciences (Code: IR.ARAKMU.REC.1396.119).
Results The results of Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% of Confidence Interval (CI) were in favor of father’s age of 25-35 and over 35 years (0.24), respectively, father’s overweight and obesity (3.87 and 3.57), mother’s overweight and obesity (3.81 and 5.5)7, more than three children per household (3.33), low and high consumption of fruits and vegetables (0.3 and 0.19), breakfast eating (0.43), dietary supplementation (2.68), consuming fast food (3.98), more than two hours of playing a computer game (3.5), chewing well (0.38), using food as a reward (1.89), as well as participating in food and table preparation (3.14). We found a dose-response association between children’s obesity and parents’ BMI, the number of children, and computer games.
Conclusion: Obesity is associated with some factors related to the family, such as nutrition, computer games, and lifestyle characteristics. Due to various risk factors and adjustable safeguards, it is necessary to provide families and children with proper education to reduce obesity. 
Full-Text [PDF 5341 kb]   (1477 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (4124 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Atricle | Subject: Pediatrics
Received: 2020/06/23 | Accepted: 2021/05/18

1. Santas F, Santas G. Prevalence of pre-school children for overweight/obesity in Turkey. World journal of pediatrics : WJP. 2018;14(1):77-83. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29336003/. [DOI:10.1007/s12519-017-0103-9]
2. Kearns K, Dee A, Fitzgerald AP, Doherty E, Perry IJ. Chronic disease burden associated with overweight and obesity in Ireland: the effects of a small BMI reduction at population level. BMC public health. 2014;14:143. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24512151/. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-143]
3. Nadeau KJ, Maahs DM, Daniels SR, Eckel RH. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies. Nature reviews Cardiology. 2011;8(9):513-25. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4292916/. [DOI:10.1038/nrcardio.2011.86]
4. Weiss R, Kaufman FR. Metabolic complications of childhood obesity: identifying and mitigating the risk. Diabetes care. 2008;31 Suppl 2:S310-6. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18227502/. [DOI:10.2337/dc08-s273]
5. Sahoo K, Sahoo B, Choudhury AK, Sofi NY, Kumar R, Bhadoria AS. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences. Journal of family medicine and primary care. 2015;4(2):187-92. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4408699/. [DOI:10.4103/2249-4863.154628]
6. Shivpuri A, Shivpuri A, Sharma S. Childhood Obesity: Review of a growing Problem. International journal of clinical pediatric dentistry. 2012;5(3):237-41. Available from: https://www.ijcpd.com/doi/pdf/10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1175. [DOI:10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1175]
7. Djalalinia S, Kelishadi R, Qorbani M, Peykari N, Kasaeian A, Nasli-Esfahani E, et al. A Systematic Review on the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, in Iranian Children and Adolescents. Iranian journal of pediatrics. 2016;26(3):e2599. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4987964/. [DOI:10.5812/ijp.2599]
8. Walls HL, Peeters A, Son PT, Quang NN, Hoai NTT, Viet NL, et al. Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in urban Hanoi, Vietnam. 2009;18(2):234-9. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19713183/.
9. Fonseca H, Silva A, Matos M, Esteves I, Costa P, Guerra A, et al. Validity of BMI based on self‐reported weight and height in adolescents. Acta Pediatr. 2010;99(1):83-8. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19878130/.
10. Papandreou D, Makedou K, Zormpa A, Karampola M, Ioannou A, Hitoglou-Makedou A. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children? Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences. 2016;4(2):194-9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6939706/. [DOI:10.3889/oamjms.2016.045]
11. Braithwaite I, Stewart AW, Hancox RJ, Beasley R, Murphy R, Mitchell EA. Fast-food consumption and body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study. BMJ open. 2014;4(12):e005813. Available from: https://www.bmjopen.bmj.com/content/4/12/e005813. [DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005813]
12. Irazusta A, Hoyos I, Irazusta J, Ruiz F, Díaz E, Gil J. Increased cardiovascular risk associated with poor nutritional habits in first-year university students. Nutrition Research. 2007;27(7):387-94. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0271531707001224. [DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2007.05.007]
13. Drewnowski A. Obesity, diets, and social inequalities. Nutrition reviews. 2009;67(suppl 1):S36-S9. Available from: https://www.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00157.x. [DOI:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00157.x]
14. Shakeri M, Mojtahedi Y, Moradkhani M. Obesity among female adolescents of Tehran schools. Journal of Payavard Salamat. 2013;6(5):403-11. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6948360/.
15. Bahreynian M, Qorbani M, Khaniabadi BM, Motlagh ME, Safari O, Asayesh H, et al. Association between Obesity and Parental Weight Status in Children and Adolescents. Journal of clinical research in pediatric endocrinology. 2017;9(2):111-7. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28008863/. [DOI:10.4274/jcrpe.3790]
16. Fuemmeler BF, Lovelady CA, Zucker NL, Ostbye T. Parental obesity moderates the relationship between childhood appetitive traits and weight. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md). 2013;21(4):815-23. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23712985/. [DOI:10.1002/oby.20144]
17. Khashayar P, Kasaeian A, Heshmat R, Motlagh ME, Mahdavi Gorabi A, Noroozi M, et al. Childhood Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors in Iranian Children and Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis; the CASPIAN-IV Study. Frontiers in pediatrics. 2018;6:393. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30622935/. [DOI:10.3389/fped.2018.00393]
18. Karki A, Shrestha A, Subedi N. Prevalence and associated factors of childhood overweight/obesity among primary school children in urban Nepal. BMC public health. 2019;19(1):1055. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31387571/. [DOI:10.1186/s12889-019-7406-9]
19. Zhang P, Wu H, Zhou X, Lu Y, Yuan Z, Moore JB, et al. The Association between Family and Parental Factors and Obesity among Children in Nanchang, China. Frontiers in public health. 2016;4:162. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4981590/. [DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2016.00162]
20. Hosseini SM, Latifi S, Kelishadi R. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Body Mass Index in a National Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: Bootstrapping Regression. Advanced biomedical research. 2017;6:152. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5735561/. [DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.219417]
21. Fadakar R, Shokrzadeh P, Pasha A, KazemNezhad Leili E. The Relationship between Nutritional Status and Obesity in 8-12 Years Old Children of Rasht City. Journal of Health and Care. 2018;19(4):212-20. Available from: http://www.hcjournal.arums.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=895&sid=1&slc_lang=en.
22. Champilomati G, Notara V, Prapas C, Konstantinou E, Kordoni M, Velentza A, et al. Breakfast consumption and obesity among preadolescents: an epidemiological study. Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society. 2019. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31713282/.
23. Toschke AM, Thorsteinsdottir KH, von Kries R. Meal frequency, breakfast consumption and childhood obesity. International journal of pediatric obesity : IJPO : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2009;4(4):242-8. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22434740/.
24. Duan R, Xue H, Liu Y, Yang M, Cheng GJWsyjJohr. Cross-sectional association between eating behaviors and overweight/obesity among children and adolescents in Chengdu city. 2015;44(4):576-80. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26454954/.
25. Epstein LH, Gordy CC, Raynor HA, Beddome M, Kilanowski CK, Paluch R. Increasing fruit and vegetable intake and decreasing fat and sugar intake in families at risk for childhood obesity. Obesity research. 2001;9(3):171-8. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11323442/. [DOI:10.1038/oby.2001.18]
26. Korinek EV, Bartholomew JB, Jowers EM, Latimer LA. Fruit and vegetable exposure in children is linked to the selection of a wider variety of healthy foods at school. Maternal & child nutrition. 2015;11(4):999-1010. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23557428/. [DOI:10.1111/mcn.12035]
27. Kuzbicka K, Rachon D. Bad eating habits as the main cause of obesity among children. Pediatric endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism. 2013;19(3):106-10. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25577898/.
28. Almuhanna MA, Alsaif M, Alsaadi M, Almajwal A. Fast food intake and prevalence of obesity in school children in Riyadh City. Sudanese journal of paediatrics. 2014;14(1):71-80. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4949920/.
29. Zhao Y, Wang L, Xue H, Wang H, Wang Y. Fast food consumption and its associations with obesity and hypertension among children: results from the baseline data of the Childhood Obesity Study in China Mega-cities. BMC public health. 2017;17(1):933. Available from: https://www.bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-017-4952-x. [DOI:10.1186/s12889-017-4952-x]
30. Rudy E, Bauer KW, Hughes SO, O'Connor TM, Vollrath K, Davey A, et al. Interrelationships of child appetite, weight and snacking among Hispanic preschoolers. Pediatric obesity. 2018;13(1):38-45. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27780312/. [DOI:10.1111/ijpo.12186]
31. Roblin L. Childhood obesity: food, nutrient, and eating-habit trends and influences. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme. 2007;32(4):635-45. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17622277/. [DOI:10.1139/H07-046]
32. Lu AS, Kharrazi H, Gharghabi F, Thompson D. A Systematic Review of Health Videogames on Childhood Obesity Prevention and Intervention. Games for health journal. 2013;2(3):131-41. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24353906/. [DOI:10.1089/g4h.2013.0025]
33. LeBlanc AG, Chaput JP, McFarlane A, Colley RC, Thivel D, Biddle SJ, et al. Active video games and health indicators in children and youth: a systematic review. PloS one. 2013;8(6):e65351. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683002/. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0065351]
34. Bhuiyan MU, Zaman S, Ahmed T. Risk factors associated with overweight and obesity among urban school children and adolescents in Bangladesh: a case-control study. BMC pediatrics. 2013;13:72. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23651597/. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-13-72]
35. Slim R, Honein K, Yaghi C, Chemaly M, Kheir B, Sayegh R. Chewing is an important first step in digestion. Diagnosis: piece of glass in stomach. Gut. 2006;55(3):379, 424. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16474107/. [DOI:10.1136/gut.2005.075598]
36. Okubo H, Murakami K. The Relationship of Eating Rate and Degree of Chewing to Body Weight Status among Preschool Children in Japan: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2018;11(1). Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30597981/. [DOI:10.3390/nu11010064]
37. Fedewa AL, Davis MC. How Food as a Reward Is Detrimental to Children's Health, Learning, and Behavior. The Journal of school health. 2015;85(9):648-58. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26201761/. [DOI:10.1111/josh.12294]
38. Patel C, Karasouli E, Shuttlewood E, Meyer C. Food Parenting Practices among Parents with Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2018;10(12). Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30545102/. [DOI:10.3390/nu10121966]
39. Ziauddeen H, Alonso-Alonso M, Hill JO. Obesity and the neurocognitive basis of food reward and the control of intake. Adv Nutr. 2015;6(4):474-86. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4496739/. [DOI:10.3945/an.115.008268]
40. Miller AL, Lumeng JC, LeBourgeois MK. Sleep patterns and obesity in childhood. Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity. 2015;22(1):41-7. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25517022/. [DOI:10.1097/MED.0000000000000125]
41. Schwartz AE, Leardo M, Aneja S, Elbel B. Effect of a School-Based Water Intervention on Child Body Mass Index and Obesity. JAMA pediatrics. 2016;170(3):220-6. Available from: https://www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26784336/ [DOI:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3778]

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.