Volume 25, Issue 1 (April & May- 2022)                   J Arak Uni Med Sci 2022, 25(1): 40-53 | Back to browse issues page


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Darzi Poor M, Tavakoli R, Shojae Zade D, Rezagholizadeh Omran Z. The Effect of an Educational Program on Health Belief Model of Preventive Behaviors of Nosocomial Infection by Babol Hospitals Midwives. J Arak Uni Med Sci 2022; 25 (1) :40-53
URL: http://jams.arakmu.ac.ir/article-1-6821-en.html
1- Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Faculty of Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2- Health Education and Health Promotion Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. , r-tavakoli@srbiau.ac.ir
3- Health Education Department and Health Promotion Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
4- Clinical Research Development Center, Shahid Yaheinejad Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
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Introduction
Nosocomial infection is one of the medical problems of this century [1]. Nosocomial infection is defined as an infection that occurs 48 or 72 hours after the patient is admitted to the hospital or during a specific period (10 to 30 days) after the patient’s discharge, and it was not present at the time of the patient’s admission and should not be in its latent period. [2] Urinary tract infection and pneumonia are the most common hospital infections [3].
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 1.7 million hospital-acquired infections occur every year [4]. “Health Belief Model” is designed and developed to explain health-related behaviors (10-12). Considering the role of midwives in controlling nosocomial infection,The present study was conducted with the aim of determining the effect of model-based educational intervention on the preventive behaviors of hospital infections by midwives working in Babol hospitals.
Materials and Methods
The current research is a semi-experimental intervention study with an intervention and control group, in which the effect of model-based training (health belief model) on preventive behaviors of hospital infections by midwives working in Babol hospitals was conducted in 2018. 86 midwives working in Babol hospitals were randomly assigned to two intervention and control groups. The data collection tool in this study is a researcher-made questionnaire based on the model. The questionnaire consists of five sections. The steps of this research include three parts. The first was the pre-test, the second was the planning and implementation of interventions based on the health belief model (which was done in the intervention group) and the results of the pre-test, and the third was the post-test one month after the educational interventions. The interventions were conducted in the form of three 40-minute sessions in the research hall of Shahid Yaheinejad Hospital in April and May of 2018. Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS v. 24 software. As a result, all the data were acceptable.  
Results
86 midwives working in the hospital in two intervention groups (43 people) and control (43 people) participated in this research. Table 1 shows the frequency of demographic characteristics (marital status, age, work experience) of the studied units.


The findings showed that according to the chi-square test, there is no significant difference between the midwives in the intervention and control groups in terms of demographic characteristics (P>0/05). (Tables 1 and 2) According to the averages before and after the intervention, in the intervention group, the average awareness of midwives increased from 6.7 to 7.7, the perceived sensitivity from 24.1 to 26.9, the perceived severity from 22.1 to 7.25, perceived benefits from 6.25 to 7.30, self-efficacy from 1.15 to 7.19, preventive behaviors of midwives increased from 1.23 to 4.26 and perceived obstacles from 5.27 to 1.21 has decreased. Which shows that there is a significant difference between pre-test and post-test in the intervention group, but no significant difference was observed in the control group (P>0.05). (Table 2). 


Discussion
In general, the results of the research showed that training based on the health belief model regarding preventive behaviors from hospital infections by midwives was effective. Considering the increase in scores obtained from the constructs, designing and implementing an educational program based on the health belief model in midwives, along with active follow-up, can be expected to increase their performance regarding preventive behaviors from hospital infections. Also, since following the implementation of the intervention in the intervention group, the variables related to the implementation of the health belief model have increased significantly. It can be said that the implemented intervention was compatible with the model of health belief. Therefore, due to the importance of the role of education in increasing the preventive behaviors of hospital infections and the resulting complications, the necessity of education in wider dimensions and with different tools is felt more and more in the society. It is suggested to conduct similar studies in larger dimensions and in other cities and other models.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

This article has been approved by the code of ethics IR.IAU.TMU.REC.1398.068 at the Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University.

Funding
This article is extracted from the master's thesis of Mahbobe Darzipour in the Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Faculty of Medical Sciences and Technologies, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University.

Authors' contributions
All authors contributed equally in preparing all parts of the research.

Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgements
The financial support of Islamic Azad University, Tehran Research Science Unit, and the Department of Health Education and Health Promotion of this university, as well as the respected officials of hospitals and midwives, are appreciated and thanked for their sincere cooperation.


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Type of Study: Original Atricle | Subject: Health
Received: 2021/02/3 | Accepted: 2022/04/30

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