Volume 24, Issue 2 (June & July 2021)                   J Arak Uni Med Sci 2021, 24(2): 230-245 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Bagheri Sheykhangafshe F, Abolghasemi A, Kafi Masouleh S M. Predicting Resilience Based on Dark Triad Personality and Psychological Wellbeing in Athletes Students. J Arak Uni Med Sci 2021; 24 (2) :230-245
URL: http://jams.arakmu.ac.ir/article-1-6281-en.html
1- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanity Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran. , abolghasemi1344@guilan.ac.ir
3- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanity Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
Full-Text [PDF 6555 kb]   (1971 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (2747 Views)
Full-Text:   (3810 Views)
1. Introduction
n addition to sports activities, athletes pursue university education related to their field of sport, i.e., known in the literature of sports psychology as the achievement of a dual goal [1]. Professional athletes have different psychological characteristics, compared to others; these characteristics can help them perform at their best in competition. Resilience is defined as a set of attitudes and behaviors that enable the athlete to overcome any pressure by effort and to concentrate on moving towards the goals [12]. Dark personality traits consist of Machiavellian traits, narcissism, and antisocial behavior. These traits are in a conceptual cluster due to having common dimensions, such as undesirable social nature, hypocrisy, the lack of empathy, aggression, self-centeredness, and deception [17]. Psychological wellbeing, along with reducing negative emotions and anxiety, helps the athlete to create a lively and desirable training environment and take a firm step towards increasing performance [28].
2. Materials and Methods
The present study was of a descriptive and correlational design. The study population included all physical education students of Guilan University in 2019. Of them, 200 student athletes were included in the study by convenience sampling method. The inclusion criteria of the study were healthy physical conditions, male gender, the age range of 18-40 years, and a history of sports activity in the last 2 years. The exclusion criteria included not belonging to the research community, a probationary history, presenting acute psychological problems, being able to answer the questions, and providing incomplete questionnaires. The following tools were employed in this study to collect the necessary data:
Resilience Scale for Athletes: This is a self-assessment tool, consisting of 14 items and 3 factors that measure thoughts and cognitions related to confidence, stability, and control. Each item is scored on a five-point Likert-type scale [33].  
The Dark Triad Personality Test: This scale was developed by Jonason and Webster [33] and includes 12 items and 3 factors: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and antisocial behavior. Besides, the tool measures these factors with 12 questions, answered on a 9-point Likert-type scale.
Psychological Wellbeing Scale: This scale was designed by Ryff in 1989 [23]. The 18-item form of this scale includes 6 factors of independence, mastery of the environment, personal growth, positive communication with others, purposefulness in life, and self-acceptance, i.e., graded on a 6-point Likert-type scale [24].
3. Results
Table 1 presents the descriptive indicators of research variables. 


Furthermore, the results of the Shapiro-Wilk test are reported to check the normality of the distribution of research variables (Table 1). The results of the Shapiro-Wilk test were not significant for all variables; thus, the distribution of the study variables was normal.
The results of the Pearson correlation coefficient indicated that Machiavellianism and antisocial behavior were significantly and negatively correlated with resilience (P<0.01). In contrast, narcissism, independence, mastery of the environment, personal growth, positive communication with others, purposefulness in life, and self-acceptance had a significant positive correlation with resilience (P<0.01).
Table 2 presents the results of examining the role of dark personality traits and psychological wellbeing in predicting resilience among the explored student athletes. 


The relevant results revealed that the correlation coefficient of predictor variables with the resilience of student-athletes equaled 0.78; these 9 variables could significantly predict 62% of changes in resilience (P<0.001). Moreover, antisocial behavior and Machiavellianism were able to negatively predict resilience in the study subjects. In contrast, self-acceptance, purposefulness in life, narcissism, personal growth, mastery of the environment, positive communication with others, and independence could positively and directly predict resilience among the study participants.
4. Discussion and Conclusion 
The present study data indicated a significant negative correlation between Machiavellian traits, antisocial behavior, and resilience. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found between narcissism and mental strength in the explored student athletes. In other words, individuals who achieved high scores in Machiavellianism and antisocial behavior only seek to satisfy their desires and do not pay attention to the rights of others, which in turn, causes instability in their behavior. In contrast, athletes with well-adjusted levels of narcissism strive to achieve their goals and act on their talents and abilities [15161718]. In this regard, Unoe et al. [21] examined the correlation between competitive sports and dark personality traits; they concluded that the effects of gender, type of sports activity, and level of competition in which athletes are involved largely affect the total score of dark personality traits.
Additionally, the collected findings revealed a significant positive correlation between psychological wellbeing and resilience in the study participants. Athletes with high resilience remain more stable during professional sports, have confidence in their abilities, and strive to achieve their goals with concentration and perseverance [25]. They also can control their level of anxiety in stressful situations, like sports events, and present their best performance compared to other competitors [29]. In other words, all of these characteristics are prominent features of psychological wellbeing, such as purposefulness in life, personal growth, mastery of the environment, and self-acceptance. In this regard, Mikogulari and Ekmexi [26] examined the training of psychological skills in increasing resilience; they concluded that athletes with high levels of psychological wellbeing have better resilience during competitions.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

This study was approved by Research Ethics Committee of Guilan University of Medical Sciences (Code: IR.GUMS.REC.1398.121). Research questionnaires were reviewed by the security and education management of Guilan School of Physical Education.

Funding
This research did not receive any grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or non-profit sectors. 

Authors' contributions
All authors participated in the preparation of this article and met the standard writing criteria based on the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Publishers (ICMJE).

Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflicts of interest.
 

Refrences
  1. Stambulova NB, Engström C, Franck A, Linnér L, Lindahl K. Searching for an optimal balance: Dual career experiences of Swedish adolescent athletes. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2015; 21:4-14. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.08.009]
  2. Bowman TG, Pitney WA, Mazerolle SM, Dodge TM. Program directors’ perceptions of reasons professional master’s athletic training students persist and depart. Athl Train Educ J. 2015; 10(1):57-64. [DOI:10.4085/100157]
  3. Turgut M, Yasar OM. Mental training of college student elite athletes. J Educ Learn. 2020; 9(1):51-9. [DOI:10.5539/jel.v9n1p51]
  4. Cosh S, Tully PJ. Stressors, coping, and support mechanisms for student athletes combining elite sport and tertiary education: Implications for practice. J Sport Psychol. 2015; 29(2):120-33. [DOI:10.1123/tsp.2014-0102]
  5. Van Zyl Y, Surujlal J, Singh C. An empirical study of university student-athlete’s strategies for coping with stress: Social psychology of sport. Afr J Physical Health Educ Recreation Dance. 2009; 9(1):62-78. [DOI:10.4314/ajpherd.v15i4.47282]
  6. Mazerolle SM, Bowman TG, Dodge TM. Athletic training student socialization part I: Socializing students in undergraduate athletic training programs. Athl Train Educ J. 2014; 9(2):72-9. [DOI:10.4085/090272]
  7. Vaughan R, Carter GL, Cockroft D, Maggiorini L. Harder, better, faster, stronger? Mental toughness, the dark triad and physical activity. Pers Individ Differ. 2018; 131:206-11. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2018.05.002]
  8. Erdoğan N, Kocaekşi S. Psychological characteristic of the elite athletes have required. Turk Klin J Sports Sci. 2015; 7(2):57-64. [DOI:10.5336/sportsci.2014-42993]
  9. Liew G, Kuan G, Chin N, Hairul AH. Mental toughness in sport: Systematic review and future. Ger J Exerc Sport Res. 2019; 49(4):381-94. [DOI:10.1007/s12662-019-00603-3]
  10. Sheard M, Golby J, Van Wersch A. Progress toward construct validation of the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ). Eur J Psychol Assess. 2009; 25(3):186-93. [DOI:10.1027/1015-5759.25.3.186]
  11. Nicholls AR, Morley D, Perry JL. Mentally tough athletes are more aware of unsupportive coaching behaviours: Perceptions of coach behaviour, motivational climate, and mental toughness in sport. Int J Sports Sci Coach. 2016; 11(2):172-81. [DOI:10.1177%2F1747954116636714]
  12. Gucciardi DF, Hanton S, Gordon S, Mallett CJ, Temby P. The concept of mental toughness: Tests of dimensionality, nomological network, and traitness. J Pers. 2015; 83(1):26-44. [DOI:10.1111/jopy.12079][PMID]
  13. Clough PJ, Earle K, Sewell D. Mental toughness: The concept and its measurement. In: Cockerill I, editor. Solutions in Sport Psychology. London: Thomson. p. 32-43. https://www.scirp.org/(S(czeh2tfqyw2orz553k1w0r45))/reference/ReferencesPapers.aspx?ReferenceID=1902775
  14. Papageorgiou KA, Wong B, Clough PJ. Beyond good and evil: Exploring the mediating role of mental toughness on the Dark Triad of personality traits. Pers Individ Dif. 2017; 119:19-23. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2017.06.031]
  15. Sabouri S, Gerber M, Sadeghi Bahmani S, Lemola S, Clough PJ, Kalak N, et al. Examining dark triad traits in relation to mental toughness and physical activity in young adults. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016; 12:229-35. [DOI:10.2147/NDT.S97267][PMID][PMCID]
  16. Onley M, Veselka L, Schermer JA, Vernon PA. Survival of the scheming: A genetically informed link between the dark triad and mental toughness. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2013; 16(6):1087-95. [DOI:10.1017/thg.2013.66][PMID]
  17. Paulhus DL, Williams KM. The dark triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. J Res Pers. 2002; 36(6):556-663. [DOI:10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00505-6]
  18. Rauthmann JF, Kolar GP. How “dark” are the Dark Triad traits? Examining the perceived darkness of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. J Pers Individ Differ. 2012; 53(7):884-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2012.06.020]
  19. Tazegül Ü. Comparison of the narcissism level of the bodybuilders before and after the application of anabolic steroid cure. Univers J Educ Res. 2018; 6(6):1149-52. [DOI:10.13189/ujer.2018.060603]
  20. Papageorgiou KA, Malanchini M, Denovan A, Clough PJ, Shakeshaft N, Schofield K, et al. Longitudinal associations between narcissism, mental toughness and school achievement. Pers Individ Differ. 2018; 131:105-10. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2018.04.024]
  21. Ueno Y, Shimotsukasa T, Suyama S, Oshio A. Correlations between competitive sports’ characteristics and the dark triad. J Phys Educ Sport. 2017; 17(2):533-6. [DOI:10.7752/jpes.2017.02080]
  22. Lambert L, Passmore HA, Holder MD. Foundational frameworks of positive psychology: Mapping well-being orientations. Can Psychol. 2015; 56(3):311-21. [DOI:10.1037/cap0000033]
  23. Ryff CD. Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1989; 57(6):1069-81. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069]
  24. Ryff CD. Psychological well-being revisited: Advances in the science and practice of eudaimonia. Psychother Psychosom. 2014; 83(1):10-28. [DOI:10.1159/000353263] [PMID] [PMCID]
  25. Micoogullari BO, Odek U, Beyaz O. Evaluation of sport mental toughness and psychological wellbeing in undergraduate student athletes. Educ Res Rev. 2017; 12(8):483-7. [DOI:10.5897/ERR2017.3216]
  26. Miçoogullari BO, Ekmekçi R. Evaluation of a psychological skill training program on mental toughness and psychological wellbeing for professional soccer players. Univers J Educ Res. 2017; 5(12):2312-9. [DOI:10.13189/ujer.2017.051222]
  27. Surujlal J, Van Zyl Y, Nolan VT. Perceived stress and coping skills of university student-athletes and the relationship with life satisfaction. Afr J Phys Health Educ, Recreat Dance. 2013; 19(42):1047-59. https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC145373
  28. Stamp E, Crust L, Swann C, Perry J, Clough P, Marchant D. Relationships between mental toughness and psychological wellbeing in undergraduate students. Pers Individ Differ. 2015; 75:170-4. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.038]
  29. Sheard M, Golby J. Effect of a psychological skills training program on swimming performance and positive psychological development. Int J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2006; 4(2):149-69. [DOI:10.1080/1612197X.2006.9671790]
  30. Golby J, Wood P. The effects of psychological skills training on mental toughness and psychological well-being of student-athletes. J Psychol. 2016; 7(06):901-3. [DOI:10.4236/psych.2016.76092]
  31. Etikan I, Musa SA, Alkassim RS. Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. Am J Theor Appl Stat. 2016; 5(1):1-4. [DOI:10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11]
  32. Bagheri Sheykhangafshe F, Abolghasemi A, Kafi Masouleh S. [Comparison dark triad traits of personality, cognitive decision-making and mental toughness in natural, supplement and steroid bodybuilders (Persian)]. Sport Psy Stud. 2019; 8(29):19-38. [DOI:10.22089/spsyj.2019.7931.1854]
  33. Jonason PK, Webster GD. The dirty dozen: A concise measure of the dark triad. J Psychol Assess. 2010; 22(2):420-32. [DOI:10.1037/a0019265]
  34. Basharpoor S, Shafie M. [Psychometric properties of Persian version of short form scale of dark triad personality traits in university students (Persian)]. J Res Psychol Health. 2015; 9(1):1. https://rph.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2459-en.html
  35. Bagheri Sheykhangafshe F, Shabahang R. [Prediction of psychological wellbeing of elderly people based on spirituality, social support, and optimism (Persian)]. J Religion Health. 2020; 7(2):22-32. http://jrh.mazums.ac.ir/article-1-716-en.html
Type of Study: Original Atricle | Subject: Internal
Received: 2020/04/15 | Accepted: 2021/07/6

References
1. ]1 [Stambulova NB, Engström C, Franck A, Linnér L, Lindahl K. Searching for an optimal balance: Dual career experiences of Swedish adolescent athletes. j Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2015; 21:4-14. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.08.009]
2. ]2[ Bowman TG, Pitney WA, Mazerolle SM, Dodge TM. Program directors' perceptions of reasons professional master's athletic training students persist and depart. Athletic Training Education j. 2015; 10(1):57-64. [DOI:10.4085/100157]
3. ]3[ Turgut M, Yasar OM. Mental Training of College Student Elite Athletes. j of Education and Learning. 2020; 9(1): 51-59. [DOI:10.5539/jel.v9n1p51]
4. ]4[ Cosh S, Tully PJ. Stressors, coping, and support mechanisms for student athletes combining elite sport and tertiary education: Implications for practice. The j Sport Psychologist. 2015; 29(2):120-33. [DOI:10.1123/tsp.2014-0102]
5. ]5[ Van Zyl Y, Surujlal J, Singh C. An empirical study of university student-athlete's strategies for coping with stress: social psychology of sport. African j for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance. 2009; 9(1):62-78. [DOI:10.4314/ajpherd.v15i4.47282]
6. ]6[ Mazerolle SM, Bowman TG, Dodge TM. Athletic training student socialization part I: socializing students in undergraduate athletic training programs. J Athletic Training Education Journal. 2014; 9(2):72-79. [DOI:10.4085/090272]
7. ]7[ Vaughan R, Carter GL, Cockroft D, Maggiorini L. Harder, better, faster, stronger? Mental toughness, the dark triad and physical activity. J Personality and Individual Differences. 2018; 131:206-211. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2018.05.002]
8. ]8[ Erdoğan N, Kocaekşi S. Psychological Characteristic of the Elite Athletes Have Required. Türkiye Klinikleri j of Sport Science. 2015; 7(2):57-64. DOI: 10.5336/sportsci.2014-42993 [DOI:10.5336/sportsci.2014-42993]
9. ]9[ Liew G, Kuan G, Chin N, Hairul AH. Mental toughness in sport: systematic review and future. German j of Exercise and Sport Research. 2019; 49(4):381-394. [DOI:10.1007/s12662-019-00603-3]
10. ]10[ Sheard M, Golby J, Van Wersch, A. Progress toward construct validation of the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ). European j of Psychological Assessment. 2009; 25(3): 186-193. [DOI:10.1027/1015-5759.25.3.186]
11. ]11[ Nicholls AR, Morley D, Perry JL. Mentally tough athletes are more aware of unsupportive coaching behaviours: Perceptions of coach behaviour, motivational climate, and mental toughness in sport. Int j of Sports Science & Coaching. 2016; 11(2):172-181. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954116636714 [DOI:10.1177%2F1747954116636714]
12. ]12[ Gucciardi DF, Hanton S, Gordon S, Mallett CJ, Temby P. The concept of mental toughness: Tests of dimensionality, nomological network, and traitness. j of personality. 2015; 83(1):26-44. DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12079 [DOI:10.1111/jopy.12079]
13. ]13[ Clough P, Earle K, Sewell D. Mental toughness: The concept and its measurement. Solutions in sport psychology. 2002:32-43.
14. ]14[ Papageorgiou KA, Wong B, Clough PJ. Beyond good and evil: Exploring the mediating role of mental toughness on the Dark Triad of personality traits. J Personality and Individual Differences. 2017; 119:19-23. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2017.06.031]
15. ]15[ Sabouri S, Gerber M, Bahmani DS, Lemola S, Clough PJ, Kalak N, Shamsi M, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Brand S. Examining Dark Triad traits in relation to mental toughness and physical activity in young adults. J Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. 2016; 12:229-235. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S97267 [DOI:10.2147/NDT.S97267]
16. 16[ Onley M, Veselka L, Schermer JA, Vernon PA. Survival of the scheming: a genetically informed link between the dark triad and mental toughness. J Twin Research and Human Genetics. 2013; 16(6):1087-1095. DOI: 10.1017/thg.2013.66 [DOI:10.1017/thg.2013.66]
17. ]17[ Paulhus DL, Williams KM. The dark triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. j of research in personality. 2002; 36(6):556-663. [DOI:10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00505-6]
18. ]18[ Rauthmann JF, Kolar GP. How "dark" are the Dark Triad traits? Examining the perceived darkness of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. J Personality and Individual Differences. 2012; 53(7):884-889. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2012.06.020]
19. ]19[ Tazegül Ü. Comparison of the Narcissism Level of the Bodybuilders before and after the Application of Anabolic Steroid Cure. Universal j of Educational Research. 2018; 6(6):1149-1152. [DOI:10.13189/ujer.2018.060603]
20. ]20[ Papageorgiou KA, Malanchini M, Denovan A, Clough PJ, Shakeshaft N, Schofield K, Kovas Y. Longitudinal associations between narcissism, mental toughness and school achievement. J Personality and Individual Differences. 2018; 131:105-110. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2018.04.024]
21. ]21[ Ueno YU, Shimotsukasa TA, Suyama SA, Oshio AT, PENICHET-TOMAS AL, PUEO B, et al. Correlations between competitive sports' characteristics and the dark triad. j of Physical Education and Sport. 2017; 17(2):533-536. DOI:10.7752/jpes.2017.02080
22. ]22[ Lambert L, Passmore HA, Holder MD. Foundational frameworks of positive psychology: Mapping well-being orientations. Canadian Psychology/Psychologies Canadienne. 2015; 56(3):311. [DOI:10.1037/cap0000033]
23. ]23[ Ryff CD. Happiness Is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-Being. j of Personality and Social Psychology. 1989; 57(6):1069-1081. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069]
24. ]24[ Ryff CD. Psychological well-being revisited: Advances in the science and practice of eudaimonia. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics. 2014; 83(1):10-28. [DOI:10.1159/000353263]
25. ]25[ Micoogullari BO, Odek U, Beyaz O. Evaluation of Sport Mental Toughness and Psychological Wellbeing in Undergraduate Student Athletes. J Educational Research and Reviews. 2017; 12(8):483-487. [DOI:10.5897/ERR2017.3216]
26. ]26[ Miçoogullari BO, Ekmekçi R. Evaluation of a Psychological Skill Training Program on Mental Toughness and Psychological Wellbeing for Professional Soccer Players. Universal j of Educational Research. 2017; 5(12):2312-2319. [DOI:10.13189/ujer.2017.051222]
27. ]27[ Surujlal J, Van Zyl Y, Nolan VT. Perceived stress and coping skills of university student-athletes and the relationship with life satisfaction. African j for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance. 2013; 19(4_2):1047-1059. http://www.ajol.info/.../98423
28. ]28[ Stamp E, Crust L, Swann C, Perry J, Clough P, Marchant D. Relationships between mental toughness and psychological wellbeing in undergraduate students. J Personality and Individual Differences. 2015; 75:170-174. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.038]
29. ]29[ Sheard M, Golby J. Effect of a psychological skills training program on swimming performance and positive psychological development. Int j of sport and exercise psychology. 2006; 4(2):149-169. [DOI:10.1080/1612197X.2006.9671790]
30. ]30[ Golby J, Wood P. The effects of psychological skills training on mental toughness and psychological well-being of student-athletes. J Psychology. 2016; 7(06):901-913. 10.4236/psych.2016.76092 [DOI:10.4236/psych.2016.76092]
31. ]31[ Etikan I, Musa SA, Alkassim RS. Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American j of Theoretical and Applied Statistics. 2016; 5(1): 1-4. DOI: 10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11 [DOI:10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11]
32. ]32[ Bagheri Sheykhangafshe F, Shabahang R, Abbasi A S, Mousavi S M, Hajialiani V, Shahryari Sarhadi M. ]Prediction of Educational Motivation Based on Mental Toughness and Capacity of Sustaining Effort and Interest for Long-Term Purposes (Persian) [. J child mental health. 2020; 6(4):11-20. 10.29252/jcmh.6.4.3 [DOI:10.29252/jcmh.6.4.3]
33. ]33[ Jonason PK, Webster GD. The dirty dozen: A concise measure of the dark triad. J Psychological assessment. 2010; 22(2):420-432. [DOI:10.1037/a0019265]
34. ]34[ Basharpoor S, Shafie M. ]Psychometric properties of Persian version of short form scale of Dark Triad personality traits in university students (Persian) [. RPH, 9(1), 1-10.
35. ]35[ Bagheri Sheykhangafshe F, Shabahang R. ]Prediction of Psychological Wellbeing of Elderly People based on Spirituality, Social Support, and Optimism (Persian) [. J Religion and Health, 2019; 7(2):22-32.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Arak University of Medical Sciences

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb