Volume 24, Issue 2 (June & July 2021)                   J Arak Uni Med Sci 2021, 24(2): 180-195 | Back to browse issues page


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Amiri F, Roshanaei G, Olfati Far M, Najafi R, Poorolajal J. Survival Analysis of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Iranian Patients: A Multistate Model. J Arak Uni Med Sci 2021; 24 (2) :180-195
URL: http://jams.arakmu.ac.ir/article-1-6253-en.html
1- Department of Health and Epidemiology, School of Medical, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.
2- Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti Universityof Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti Universityof Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , rasolnajafi@yahoo.com
4- Department of Epidemiologys, School of Health, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran.
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1. Introduction
y disrupting the immune system, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) exposes individuals to Tuberculosis (TB) absorbing state and increases the death rate [1, 2]. The global incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and TB equals 0.44%; in Iran, 0.037% of deaths occur due to HIV and TB [2, 3]. Survival modeling can estimate the survival function for each individual at any given time [4, 5]. 
An intermediate state is a flexible tool, that practically, can easily examine the results of different survival models by fully considering the intermediate event [6]. The simplest form of this model involves describing the process of health to disease and death, i.e., called the disease-death model [7]. Intermediate states are used to estimate the transition odds and the factors affecting each transition [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. In the present study, an intermediate state was used to examine the progression of HIV infection to death.
2. Materials and Methods
In this retrospective study, patients’ information was extracted from their treatment records using a checklist that included demographic, behavioral, and disease transmission information. The intermediate state, at each stage, measured the impact of factors affecting the progression of the disease [13]. The time of diagnosis of HIV was considered as the baseline, the death as the absorbing state, and the stages of AIDS, TB, and the simultaneous infection of HIV/TB as intermediate states (Figure 1). 

To estimate the odds of transition between states, we used the Allen-Johnson estimator probability of staying (Formula 1) [7]:


I represent the same matrix, and  is a matrix in which in its non-diameter elements, the momentary hazards of transition from the g-state to the h-state are  Instantaneous hazards were estimated as Formula 2:


Yg(s)Yg(s) reflects the number of individuals who are at risk in a state other than g at time s in a state other than dgh(s) dgh(s) represents the number of subjects that have entered stated h from state g at the s time.
To examine the effect of auxiliary variables on cause-specific risk for the individual, a proportional risk model was used (Formula 3):


The estimation of parameters was performed using the partial odds method, as Formula 4 [10]:


To analyze the obtained data, mState and msSurv packages were used in R software version 3.3.3.
3. Results
The Mean±SD age of examined 2185 participants was 33.9±10.3 years. Of the 1195(54.7%) subjects infected with HIV, 619(51.7%) received antiretroviral treatment and 342(28.6%) patients received isoniazid prophylaxis.
Approximately 20% of the explored participants were expired within the first 10 years after being diagnosed with HIV. In this time, about 40% of the subjects remained HIV-positive, and about 40% of those experienced AIDS.
In the first transition from the primary state (HIV diagnosis) to state 2 (AIDS diagnosis) (Figure 1), the variables of age, isoniazid intake, CD4 count, and the routes of transmission were influential. In this study, the transitions of HIV to TB, AIDS to death, and TB to TB/AIDS were not included in Tables 1 and 2 due to the lack of significance of the variables. 


The variables affecting the third transition (transition from HIV to death, Figure 1) were also a history of imprisonment, age, and the use of antiretroviral drugs, respectively (P<0.05).
The variables affecting the fourth transition (transition from AIDS to TB, Figure 1) also significantly influenced disease progression and TB, respectively, which included gender, prison history, age, isoniazid intake, CD4, and antiretroviral treatment (Table 2).


The effective variables in the fifth transition (transition from AIDS to death) were gender, imprisonment, isoniazid intake, CD4, and antiretroviral therapy, in sequence (Table 1).
4. Discussion
In our study, the risk of death was higher in HIV-infected patients who did not receive antiretroviral therapy than in those who expired. Other studies indicated that antiretroviral therapy reduces the burden of disease in HIV-infected patients [11, 12, 13]. A prognostic factor of HIV disease is the number of CD4 cells [14]. Our study also confirmed its effects on AIDS, post-AIDS TB development, and AIDS-related deaths. Low CD4 cell count is a direct factor in the development of TB in individuals living with HIV [1516]. In our study, the age of individuals was significantly associated with AIDS, HIV-related death, and AIDS-related death, i.e., consistent with other studies [13، 16171819, 20]. The effect of gender was approved on TB generated after AIDS and AIDS-induced death [2122]. However, the effect of gender has not been confirmed in some studies n this respect [20]. Prison history was influential in our study on HIV-related deaths, post-AIDS TB, and AIDS-induced deaths, i.e., consistent with other studies [2324]. The main risk factor for the spread of HIV and AIDS in Iran is injection drug use. The most common cause of disease transmission in men is injecting drugs and in women, is sexual intercourse [13, 25, 26]. Isoniazid intake was effective in the progression of HIV to AIDS, AIDS to TB, and death from AIDS [28 ,27 ,18]. 
The current study results indicated the effects of different clinical and baseline variables on the natural course of this disease. Therefore, preventing the further spread of the disease to the community and controlling the disease in patients requires targeted educational and therapeutic interventions that familiarize community members with the routes of transmission and the prevention of the disease and encourage patients to visit medical centers early.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences (Code: IR.UMSHA.REC.1396.117).

Funding
This research did not receive any grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or non-profit sectors. 

Authors' contributions
All authors equally contributed to preparing this article.

Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgements
We appreciate the cooperation of the Vice Chancellor for Research and Technology of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences.


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Type of Study: Original Atricle | Subject: Infection
Received: 2020/02/25 | Accepted: 2021/02/27

References
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4. Hosseini M MK, Rahimzadeh M, Mahmoodi M. Comparison of survival models in studying breastfeeding duration. 2007.
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6. Meira-Machado L, de Uña-Álvarez J, Cadarso-Suárez C, Andersen PK. Multi-state models for the analysis of time-to-event data. Statistical methods in medical research. 2019;18(2):195-222. [DOI:10.1177/0962280208092301]
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11. Haghighat S. Survival rate and its correlated factors in breast cancer patients referred to Breast Cancer Research Center. Iranian Quarterly Journal of Breast Diseases. 2013;6(3):28-36.
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13. Yaghoobi H, Ahmadiniya H, Shabani Z, Vazirinejad R, Zolfizadeh F, Rezaeian M. The Epidemiological Investigation of Patients with HIV/AIDS in Bandar Abbas Behavioral Disorders Counseling Center During 2005-2015. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. 2018;16(10):969-82.
14. Lanoy E, May M, Mocroft A, Phillip A, Justice A, Chene G, et al. Prognosis of patients treated with cART from 36 months after initiation, according to current and previous CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA measurements. AIDS (London, England). 2019;23(16):2199-208. [DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283305a00]
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