Volume 23, Issue 5 (December & January - Special Issue on COVID-19 2020)                   J Arak Uni Med Sci 2020, 23(5): 604-613 | Back to browse issues page

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Omidi A, Shatizadeh Malekshahi S, Veisi P. Extrapulmonary Manifestations of Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Narrative Review. J Arak Uni Med Sci 2020; 23 (5) :604-613
URL: http://jams.arakmu.ac.ir/article-1-6318-en.html
1- Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Virology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. , s.shatizadeh@modares.ac.ir
3- Department of Virology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (7368 Views)
Background and Aim: Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are known to cause respiratory tract infections in humans. SARS-CoV-2 is a new type of this family initiated in late 2019 and its related disease is known as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Common symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, dry cough, fatigue, myalgia, arthralgia and shortness of breath.
Methods & Materials: In This narrative review a literature search was conducted in scientific databases including Google Scholar and PubMed to find studies published from December 2019 to May 10 2020 on the role the extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. 
Ethical Considerations: Ethical issues (including plagiarism, misconduct, data fabrication, falsification, double publication or submission, redundancy) have been completely observed by the authors.
Results: In addition to respiratory symptoms, involvement of various organs such as gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, skin, olfactory system, cardiovascular system, liver, kidney, and eyes was also reported. Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 included anosmia, ageusia, skin rash, chickenpox-like blisters, acute cardiac failure with increased troponin levels, kidney inflammation and edema, common gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. diarrhea, nausea and vomiting), elevated liver enzyme levels, neurological disorders (e.g. stroke), nonspecific symptoms (e.g. headache and dizziness), and decreased consciousness level.
Conclusion: The hypothetical mechanisms of various organ involvements during COVID-19 include immune-mediated inflammation such as cytokine storm, respiratory dysfunction, hypoxemia, cellular damage, or combination of these mechanisms. Further studies should be conducted on the causes of various COVID-19-induced damages to determine the exact relationship between the pathogenesis, prognosis and severity of the disease. 
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Type of Study: Review Article | Subject: COVID-19
Received: 2020/05/11 | Accepted: 2020/10/5

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